The table below is a list of countries having utility model protection under various names as at March 2008 An invention will involve an innovative step if there are differences between the invention and the prior art, that make a substantial contribution to the working of the invention
Australia [ ] The law in provides for the grant of a utility model known, since 2001, as an innovation patent This is why for a utility model the granting process is sometimes called simply registration of the utility model

Kelsey Martin Mott, The Concept of the Small Patent, in The International Business Executive, 5 February 2007, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 23 - 24• Utility models cannot claim processes or methods.

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Utility model
In any case only bibliographic data are published after 1 month from the filing
كافة ملفات الصف الثاني عشر المتقدم في مادة الرياضيات
At the end of the fourth year from the filing of the application, a maintenance fee for the years 5 to 10 falls due
كافة ملفات الصف الثاني عشر المتقدم في مادة الرياضيات
In contrast, for patents, that requirement is defined as "obvious", which means that it is softer for utility models due to the introduction of the term "very"
Specifically, a utility model is a "right to prevent others, for a limited period of time, from commercially using a protected invention without the authorization of the right holder s Furthermore, some countries exclude particular subject-matter from utility model protection
Although a utility model is similar to a patent, it is generally cheaper to obtain and , has a shorter generally 6 to 15 years , shorter grant lag, and less stringent requirements The state of the art comprises any knowledge made available to the public by means of a written description or by use within Germany before the date relevant for the priority of the application

Utility models are also available in countries that have a utility model system via the PCT system of international patent applications.

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كافة ملفات الصف الثاني عشر المتقدم في مادة الرياضيات
Suthersanen, Incremental Inventions in Europe: A Legal and Economic Appraisal of Second Tier Patents, in Journal of Business Law, 2001, 319 ff• This type of right is available in many countries but, notably, not in the , or
Utility model
, processes , chemical substances, plants and animals are barred from utility model protection
Utility model
The state of the art comprises any knowledge made available to the public by means of a written or oral disclosure, anywhere in the World, before the filing date of the application or the priority date if claimed
The rights conferred by utility model laws are similar to those granted by patent laws, but are more suited to what may be considered as "incremental inventions" While no international convention requires countries to protect utility models unlike copyright, trade marks or patents and they are not subject to the , they are subject to the , which means that countries that do protect utility models are required to comply with rules such as national treatment and priority
From 1979 to 2001, a similar regime existed under the name "petty patent" Manual for the Handling of applications for patents, designs and trade marks throughout the world, Kluwer Law International, Update No

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كافة ملفات الصف الثاني عشر المتقدم في مادة الرياضيات
Definition and terminology [ ] A utility model is a statutory exclusive right granted for a limited period of time the so-called "term" in exchange for an inventor providing sufficient teaching of his or her invention to permit a person of ordinary skill in the relevant art to perform the invention
Utility model
1363 of : "Validity Term of the Exclusive Rights to an Invention, Utility Model, and Industrial Design"• Grant generally occurs within 2 years
كافة ملفات الصف الثاني عشر المتقدم في مادة الرياضيات
The innovative step requirement is supposedly a lesser requirement than the inventive step required for a standard patent under Australian law